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Saturday, February 15th, 2014

ilk is considered as an ideal and complete food and it contains proximate principles of a well balanced diet. Milk in Sanskrit is called as ‘Ksheera’ Ayurveda – an authentic system of science has described varieties of milk and its importance in diet. There are varieties of milk and its importance in diet. There are varieties of milk from different animals like cow, buffalo, goat, horse, camel, elephant etc. Among all cow’s milk seems to have greater medicinal properties. Human milk is also essential diet for infants in their growth and to gain Immunity throughout their life.
Cow’s Milk:-
Cow’s milk in Sanskrit is “Gokheera”. It is considered to be the best among all.
Cow’s milk which is sweet in taste, cold in potency, promotes digestion, strength, longevity, good for eyes, and suitable for all age groups. It is indicated in most of the diseases like Sopha, Udara, Pandu, Daaha, Amlapitta, Unmada, Mada, Brahma, Murcha, Garbhasrava, Yoni roga, Sukra vikara etc.
In spite of its indications in various diseases it is also used for purification for some dravyas to remove their visha properties and make them fit. To be used for various medicinal preparations. Milk is also used in various external treatments in Ayurveda like Ksheera dhara, ksheera vasti etc.

Buffalo’s Milk
Buffalo’s milk is heavier than cow’s milk. Hence it is advised to persons those who have strong Digestive power.

Goat’s Milk:-
Goat’s milk has the same properties like that of cow’s milk, still lighter to digest than cow’s milk. Goat’s milk is lighter to digest as goat eats lots of plant food that has different tastes, does lots of physical exercises like walking and drinks very little quantity of water. It can be used as a substitute in the place of cow’s milk.

Human Milk :-
Human milk is essential for infants. Human milk is sweet and slightly astringent in taste, cold in potency and light to digest. It promotes strength, helps in promoting the growth of the tissues of the body, good for eyes. It is highly beneficial in disorders of eyes. It is used for the treatments like Tarpana, Aschyotnana and Nasyam.
Dharoshana ksheeram:
The milk that is obtained directly from the cow’s udder will be warm, it is said to be dharoshana ksheeram. It is equal to Nectar in qualities, promotes digestion and Tridoshasharam in nature. When it becomes cold it becomes unfit for use.
How to boil milk ?
Take 1 part of the quantity of Milk, ½ part of water should be added, and then boiled till the water gets evaporated.
Unboiled Milk
The un boiled milk is heavy to digest, reduces one’s digestive power. All types of milks should be taken only after boiling except human milk, as boiling of human milk is not good. If the milk is kept un boiled for about 5 hours the original quality of milk changes. If it is kept for about 10 hours it becomes unfit for use.

Effects of intake of milk
Depending upon time
Morning: intake of milk is usually not advised in the morning hours as it is heavy to digest.
Afternoon: intake of milk in the afternoon promotes strength in old people, improves Agni in children, removes urinary calculi and also alleviates kapha and pitta.
Evening: drinking of milk in the evening hours is good for eyes and alleviates vata and pitta.
Night: drinking of milk at Night is ideal. In day time people happen to exert much and vidahi annam hence drinking of milk after food is essential at night to reduce tiredness and also good for eyes.

Age factor
Baalyavastha (Childhood) – promotes growth and development of tissues
Yuvavastha (youth) – promotes strength
Vruddhavastha (old age) – provides strength and prevents ageing.

Qualitities depending upon Storage
Qualitities of milk differ depending upon the vessel in which it is stored.
Taamra – copper
Suvarna – Gold
Roupya – silver
Kamsya – brass

In pregnancy
Habitual intake of cow’s milk is indicated from the first month of pregnancy in Ayurvedic samhitas. Because of the valuable properties, milk is advised to take everyday solely or mixed with other food.

Milk that should be avoided
Milk other than sweet taste like sour, salt should be avoided. Milk with bad smell, abnormal colour should be avoided. Milk of Cow that is pregnant aggravates all the tridoshas, hence should be avoided.
After intake of Taamboola (betel leaves) for about 2 hours milk should be avoided.
Milk is considered almost complete food, as it contains Vitamins A, thiamine, Nicotine acid, Vitamin B12, Vitamin K, minerals like Calcium, Phosphorus, sodium and potassium according to modern concepts. In Ayurveda milk has so many properties like Rasayana and considered to have the qualitities of Ojas – essence of Dhatus, hence equal to nectar. Now – a day’s people go for pasteurized milk, slim milk, skimmed milk etc which is not going to give the actual benefits of milk rather it may lead to some other problem in the future. Cow’s milk is the best among all.


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

onventional yoga practices are beneficial to avoid sports injuries and add general flexibility to the body. Stretching the injured muscles remains an important routine for sometime after you have recovered from the sports injury, to prevent any danger of the muscles, becoming tight and then being re – injured. Yoga is useful to rehabilitate from sports injuries.
• Stable autonomic nervous system equilibrium, with a tendency toward parasympathetic nervous system dominance rather than the usual stress – induced sympathetic nervous system dominance.
Physiological Benefits of Yoga
• Pulse rate, Respiratory rate, Blood Pressure (of special significance for hypo reactors) decreases.
• Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) increases
• EEG – alpha waves increase (theta, delta, and beta waves also increase during various stages of meditation).
• EMG activity decreases
• Cardiovascular efficiency, respiratory efficiency increases (respiratory amplitude and smoothness increase, tidal volume increases, vital capacity increases, breath – holding time increases).
• Gastrointestinal function and endocrine function normalizes.
• Excretory functions, postures improves
• Musculoskeletal flexibility and joint range of motion increase
• Strength and resiliency increase
• Endurance, energy level and immunity increases
• Weight normalizes
• Sleep improves
• Pain decreases
Physiological Benefits
• Somatic and kinaesthetic awareness increase
• Mood improves and subjective well being increases
• Social adjustment, self – acceptance and self – actualization increase
• Hostility, Anxiety and depression decreases
• Psychomotor functions improves
• Grip strength increases
• Eye – hand co – ordination, Choice reaction time Dexterity and the skin skills improve.
• Steadiness, Depth perception Balance and Integrated functioning of body parts improves.
• Cognitive function improves
• Attention, Concentration, Memory, Learning efficiency, Symbol coding, Flicker fusion frequency improves.
Biochemical Effects
• The biochemical profile improves, indicating an anti stress and anti oxidant effect, important in the prevention of degenerative diseases.
• Glucose, Sodium decreases
• HDL, Cholinesterase increases.
• LDL, VLDL, triglycerides, total cholesterol, catecholamine’s decreases.
• AT Pase, hematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocyte increases
• Total white blood cell count decreases
• Thyrocin, Vitamin C, total serum proteining increases


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

The cause of high blood pressure cannot be ascertained in most cases. Such high blood pressure where the cause is not known as primary hypertension or essential hypertension. In other cases hypertension may be complication or other systemic diseases e.g. Pheochromocytoma (tumour of adrenal glands), chronic renal failure, pregnancy, etc. In these cases where hypertension arises as complication to other primary diseases of conditions. It is known as secondary hypertension. Some factors that may contribute to hypertension are obesity, alcohol, stress, steroids, oral contraceptive pills, and diabetes mellitus.
Normal blood pressure of a healthy young adult is 120/80 mm of Hg or now a days the range that is consider normal is 115/75. The upper reading is known as the systolic pressure which is the pressure exerted on the arterial walls when the heart is in the state of contraction. The second reading is the diastolic blood pressure which is the pressure exerted on the arterial walls when the heart is in the state of relaxation. A persistent high systolic blood pressure of over 140 or the diastolic pressure above 90 would be considered as high blood pressure. However, in younger adults as persistent blood pressure of 130/90 should also be considered as high blood pressure.
Signs and Symptoms
Most cases could be asymptomatic, whereas in others following signs and symptoms could be present.
? Headache ? Irritability ? Palpitation ? Giddiness
Home remedies
For secondary hypertension in the underlying cause has to be dealt with first. For primary hypertension, following remedial measures can be adopted.
? Garlic is the herb of choice not only to treat hypertension but many other cardiovascular diseases. Peel and crush 3 -4 cloves of garlic and take them once a day with a glass of butter milk.
? Take handful of leaves of drumstick and boil them in little water. Grind it and have it like a soup twice a day after food. Preferably do not add salt.
? Mix 1 teaspoon of onion juice with ½ teaspoon of honey. Have this solution twice a day. Both onion and garlic have adolescence which has relaxing effect on muscles. So these two products can be generously taken in diet as well. However garlic is more potent than onion
Diet and lifestyle consideration
? Reduce weight by cutting down animal fat and hydro generated vegetable oil. Brisk walking for 45 mins is an easy and effective form of exercise for many patients. Take whole wheat with bran to make breads. If you are obese use bajra or millets instead of wheat.
? Although the number of cases sensitive to salt intake are less, excess salt is best avoided. Salt causes water retention in the body which in turn causes increase in blood pressure. So although normal salt while cooking is permissible, avoid all food items which have high quantities of salt e.g. pickles, pappads, chips, dry fish and all dried and preserved food. Do not take salt separately in serving dish. If possible use rock salt instead of sea salt in food. If you are accustomed to taking more salt in food and cutting it down makes the food tasteless to you, try adding lemon, amchur (dry raw mango powder), herbs and unsalted seasoning to flavour the food instead.
? Meditate or listen to some soothing music for everyday for 30 mins.
? Try to quit smoking and drinking. There is a belief that 30 ml of alcohol once in a while is beneficial to the heart, but excess quantity is unhealthy and damages not to the arterial walls but also the liver, pancreas and brain.
? Include raw curry leaves, cucumber with skin, radish with leaves, lemon etc in salads.
Ayurvedic remedies
? Mix ½ teaspoon each of jatamansi churna and tagar churna with ½ teaspoon of arjun choorna. Take the above mixture twice a day.
? Take ¾ tea spoon triphala churna with warm water at bedtime.
? A mixture of 250 gms each of swarnamaswastik bhama and mrug shring bhasma to be taken twice daily with honey.
? Shirodhara with milk and butter milk treated with herbs as a useful treatment to relieve stress.
? Sarpagandha churna is also used to treat hypertension. However it should be used as a whole herb, rather than segregating its active ingredients and using them. Using the entire herb substantially reduces the side effects. However it is better to consult an ayurvedic physician before starting this medicine.

Coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the muscular walls of the heart. In order to carry out pumping action effectively, the cardiac muscles or the heart muscles have to get enough blood supply. Coronary artery disease occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscles become narrow and hard. The main cause of CAD in presence of excessive cholesterol in the blood which gets deposited on the inner wall of the arteries and over a period of time hard plaques are formed at that place. This condition is known as atherosclerosis. Due to the arthrosclerosis the lumen of the artery is narrowed and the elasticity is also lost which render the arteries incapable of expanding and contracting effectively. The important risk factors which may cause the narrowing of the arteries:
• Elevated levels of bad cholesterol (L. D. L/ V. L. D. L) and triglycerides
• Obesity
• Diabetes mellitus
• Hypertension
• Lack of exercise (exercise helps build up the good cholesterol or HDL which protects the heart.
• Stress
• Smoking and drinking
• heredity
Signs and symptoms
• Constricting chest pain which may radiate to hand, back, lower jaw and upper abdomen. It mimics a heart disease.
• Pain may be precipitated or increased during exercise or exertion or after a meal.
• Breathlessness on exertion may be present in some cases.
• Sweating
• Arrhythmias or irregular bleeding of heart may be noted in some cases.
• Heart attack or myocardial infarction may result as a complication in severe blockage.
Home remedies
• Allopathic practioners routinely prescribe aspirin in such cases to make the blood less viscous facilitate its flow. Garlic has similar blood thinning action. Take 4 – 5 cloves of garlic, peel and crush them coarsely, add them to a mixture of half cup milk and half cup water. Boil it till only ½ cup mixture itself. This formulation is known as rason ksheerap. Take this mixture every morning on an empty stomach.
• Amla and sour fruits like lemon are beneficial for the heart.
• Take dry ginger powder 2 – 3 grams daily with jaggery. Consume at least 4 betel nut leaves with stalk after food daily.
Diet and lifestyle
• Include carrot, cucumber, radish, lemon, old rice, whole wheat, buttermilk which is not too sour, fresh fruits, snake gourd, bitter gourd, green grams, grapes, pomegranates and dry fruits like dried black grapes, figs, prunes, apricot in the diet. avoid cheese, pal moil, coconut oil, butter, milk cream, all products made from refined flour (Maida), dried nuts (pistachio, walnut, almonds etc), red meat, broiler chicken, prawns, eggs, yolk, hydro generated vegetable oil, coffee and chocolates.
• Exercise increases HDL and lowers LDL. However, strenuous exercises may trigger chest pain. One can do vigorous exercises only if cholesterol is elevated in absence of other symptoms. Otherwise just walking 45 mins is beneficial. It need not be brisk walking either. Just maintain a medium continuous space.
• Quit drinking and smoking at the earliest.
• Meditation and yogasana helps to relieve stress which is the one of the leading causes of heart disease.
• If possible switch to a vegetarian diet.
• Recent studies show that changing the medium of cooking helps to control the cholesterol levels to certain extent. Hence barring coconut oil and palm oil use the remaining oils like olive oil, sesame oil, ground nut oil, sunflower oil, mustard oil etc in rotation.
Ayurvedic remedies
• Do not use medicines containing arjun in presence of cardio genic chest pain as it worsens the condition.
• Tablet laghu sootshekhar can be given thrice a day with warm water.
• 250 gms of mruga shringa bhasma mixed with 1 gm of pushkarmool churna should be taken twice daily with warm water. Any compound contining guggulu is beneficial in lowering the cholesterol. Select any of the following yogaraj guggulu, ajwain guggulu, triphala guggulu and take 2 tabs thrice a day with warm water after food.


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

hronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia also called CCL is a blood and bone marrow disease that usually gets worse slowly. Normally, the body produces bone marrow stem cells (immature cells) that develop into mature blood cells. In CLL, too many system cells develop into a type of white blood cell called lymphocytes. The lymphocytes in CLL are not able to fight infection very well. Also as the amount of lymphocytes increases in the blood and bone marrow, there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This may result in infection, anemia, and easy bleeding. In Ayurveda Sannipataja Pandu Roga is very well correlated with this disease along with the dimuntion of ‘Oja’. We have assumed an Ayurvedic pathogenesis of this disease and treated accordingly and got excellent results clinically as well as reduction in total cell amount.

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a clonal malignancy of B lymphocytes. CLL is the second most common type of leukaemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age; it rarely occurs in children. The disease is usually indolent, with slowly progressive accumulation of long lived small lymphocytes. These cells are immunocompentent and respond poorly to antigenic stimulation.
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is manifested clinically by immune suppression, bone marrow failure, and organ infiltration with lymphocytes. Immune deffeiciney is also related to inadequate antibody production by the abnormal B cells. With advanced disease chronic lymphocytic leukaemia may cause damage by direct tissue infiltration.

A symptoms and Signs
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a disease of older patients, with 90% of cases occurring after age 50 and a median age at presentation of 65. Many patients will be incidentally discovered to have lymphocytosis. Others present with fatigue or lymphadenopathy. On examination, 80% of patients will have lymphadenopathy and half will have enlargement of the liver or spleen.
The hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is isolated lymphocytosis. The white blood count is usually greater than 20,000/cumm and may be markedly elevated to several hundred thousand. Usually 75 – 98% of the circulating cells are lymphocytes. Lymphocytes appear small and mature with condensed nuclear chromatin, and are morphologically indistinguishable from normal small lymphocytes. The hematocrit and platelet count are usually normal at presentation. The bone marrow is variably infiltrated with small lymphocytes.

Most cases of early indolent CLL require no specific therapy; indication for treatment includes progressive fatigue, symptomatic lymphadenopathy anaemia or thrombocytopenia.
Fludarabine is the drug of choice now (it has replaced Chlorambucil as front line therapy).
It is given I/V 5 days/wk once a month for 4 – 6 months.
Combination therapy with Fludarabine + Rituximab or Cyclophosphamide or both produces better rates of response. Prognosis, Median survival is approximately 6 yrs, 25% live >10 yrs stage 0 – I median survival > 10 yrs, III – IV median survival < 2 yrs.

The above mentioned disease is very well correlated with Sannipathaja Pandu roga described in Ayurvedic texts so we have planned and Ayurvedic regimen for this patient and treat him for 15 days. The results are highly encouraging the total cell amount is reduced dramatically, type of cell is changed towards normal and clinical condition of the patient is improving.
Pandu roga name is given because of the abnormally in the colour of the patient, which turns pale white.
By intake of alkaline, sour, salty, too hot, incompatible food and unsuitable food. Excessive use of oil cake, sesame oil, day sleep, exercise and sexual intercourse during the digestion of food, faulty management of evacuator procedures and seasons, suppression of natural urges, anxiety, fear, anger and grief, so that sadhaka Pitta situated in the heart is aggravated and propelled by strong Vayu through the ten arteries, which spread in it whole body. Thus pitta is located in the space between the skin and muscle affects kapha, Vata, blood, skin and flesh thereby produces various shades of colours like pale yellow, deep yellow, and green. This is called as Pandu Roga.
It is premonitory symptoms are palpitation of heart, roughness of skin, absence of sweat and exhaustion.
According to Susruta these are cracking of skin, excessive spitting, malaise, desire for eating earth, swelling around the eyes, yellow discoloration of faeces, urine and indigestion.
General features
When the disease manifested in the patients suffers from paleness, tinnitus, diminished body fire, debility, malaise, aversion of food, exhaustion, giddiness, pain in the body, fever, dyspnoea, heaviness in the body and anorexia. He feels as his limbs are kneaded, pressed or churned. Moreover he has swelling in periorbitaal area, green complexion, falling of hairs, loss of lustre, irritability, aversion of cold, over sleep, spitting, diminished speech, on exertion by climbing stairs he suffers from cramps in shanks, pain in waist, thighs and legs and lassitude.
Away from the above features the patient will also suffers from the defiency of blood, fat, ojas, blunting of senses, looseness of body parts along with the abnormality of the complexion and strength.
Clinical features of Vataj Pandu
Vata vitiated by vata aggravating diet and regimens produces blackish paleness, roughness in body, body ache, piercing pain, trembling headache, dryness of stool, distaste in mouth, oedema, hardness in bowels and debility.
Pitta vitiated by its aggravating factors particularly in a person of Paittika constitution affects blood etc and thus cause pandu roga. The patient becomes yellow with greenish tinge associated with fever, burning sensation, vomiting, fainting, thirst and yellow urine and stool. He perspires profusely, he desires for cold, and aversion of food. He has pungency in mouth, hot and sour things do not suits him. He suffers from acid eructation’s and burning sensations during digestion of food along with foul odour, loose motions, obesity and feeling of darkness.
Clinical features of Kaphaj Pandu
Kaphaj pandu roga produces heaviness, drowsiness, vomiting, whitish complexion, excessive salivation, horripilation, malaise, fainting, giddiness, exhaustion, dyspnoea, cough, lassitude, anorexia, obstruction in speech and voice, white urine, eyes and stool, desire for pungent rough and hot things, oedema in whole body and sweetness in body.
Clinical features of Tridoshaj Pandu
In those who use all sort of things, dosas get vitiated and causes tridoshaj pandu roga, exhibiting symptoms of all three doshas. This type of pandu roga is very trouble some.
Clinical features of Earth eating pandu
In persons habitually eating earth one of the dosas get vitiated according to the type of the earth such as Vata, Pitta and Kapha by eating astringent, alkaline and sweet earth respectively.
Incurable pandu roga
Pandu roga of a long duration having produced excessive roughness is not curable. The patient developing swelling after a long duration and having vision of objects is yellow is not treatable. The disease is incurable if the patient passes scabulous, scanty stool, with mucus and green colour has anxious expression, white and excessively smeared limbs, suffering from vomiting, fainting and thirst and if he becomes white due to defiency of blood.

Spices in Ayurveda

Saturday, February 15th, 2014


Yurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine of 5000 years of antiquity recognizes a variety of plants as medicinally important. So also the Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. Most of the spices are thus important dravyas of medicinal significance in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines besides homeopathy and the traditional Tibetan, Chinese, Indonesian medicines. Medicinal properties of some of the common spices are given below.

Vernacular names ‘Lasunah’ (Sanskrit), Lahasun (Hindi), Velluli (Malayalam)
Mixture of strong smelling aliphatic mono and polysulphides are present in garlic juice besides thioglycosides, amino acids, fatty acids, flavanols, vitamins, trace elements, volatile oils.
The bulbs on distillation yield an essential oil containing allypropyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide, and a few more sulphur containing compounds.
Pharmacological properties
Garlic based preparations have been given in pulmonary phythiasis, bronchiectasis, gangrene of the lung, whooping cough, laryngeal tuberculosis, lupus and duodenal ulcers. Inhalation of fresh garlic juice is useful in pulmonary tuberculosis. Garlic is effective for dyspepsia, flatulence and colic. It also has antihelminthic, diaphoretic, diuretic and carminative properties.
Garlicis effective in decreasing in triglycerides and cholesterol in blood. Garlic juice is used as a rubefacient in skin diseases and as ear drop in ear ache. The juice diluted with water can be used as a lotion for washing wounds and foul ulcers.
Garlic has been used as a food and medicine in India, China and Middle East for thousands of years. Charaka has described significant medicinal properties to garlic. Hippocrates and other Greek physicians also recognized the medicinal value of garlic. Garlic is also used in folk human and veterinary medicines in India.

Vernacular names – Dyanyaka , Kustuburu (Sanskrit), Dhaniya (Hindi), kottampala kottamalli (Malayalam).
The aromatic odour and taste of coriander fruits are due to the essential oil which is pale yellow liquid having characteristics odour and taste of coriander. The chief constituents of the oil are coriandrol. The other minor constituents of the oil are a – pinene, n – cymene, dipentine, a – terpine, phellandrene, terpinolene and traces of geranoil, borneol, aldehydes and esters of the seeds contain 19 – 20% of fatty oil having dark brownish green colour and an odour similar to that of coriander.
Pharmacological properties
Carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, astringent, anti bile’s, laxative, refrigent and aphrodisiac besides sedative. The fruits and leaves are also used against colic, dizziness, and kidney stones, indigestion, sore throat, etc. A decoction of coriander plus turmeric powder is useful against acne and black heads. Coriander is useful for ulcers and black heads in Unani system of medicine.
Vernacular names – jira, Zeera (Hindi), jeerakam (Malayalam)
The seeds on distillation yield a volatile oil with an unpleasant characteristic colour and somewhat bitter taste. The chief constituent of the volatile oil is cumaldehyde, which forms nearly 2 0 – 40 % of the oil. Besides the aldehyde, the oil also contains p – cymene, pinene, cumine, cumic alcohol, a – phellandrene and a – terpenol etc.
Besides the volatile oil, the seeds also contain fixed oil, which is greenish brown in colour with strong aromatic flavour.
Pharmacological properties
Cumin seeds are stimulant, carminative, anithelminthic, antifungal, stimulative and diuretic, sedative and antispasmodic. Cumin oil is used against eczema and other skin complaints in Unani system of medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha described cumin as an appetite stimulant and a good digestive. It is used for common gastro intestinal upsets, and it is also used as a carminative.

Vernacular names – Haridra, Rajani (Sanskrit), Haldi (Hindi), Manjal (Malayalam), Paspu (Telegu)
Cur cumin, essential oil and oleoresin are the important phyto chemicals of turmeric. The yellow colour of turmer is due to cur cumin, which is also credited with antioxidant and medicinal properties. Cur cumin is extracted from turmeric powder in alcohol or ethyl acetate and crystallized in benzene. Turmeric oil is extracted by steam distillation of rhizome powder, leaves etc. Of turmeric, ground turmeric, or solvent extraction yields oleoresin. In addition to cur cumin and essential oil, petroleum/chloroform/water/ether extracts of turmeric are also having medicinal significance.
Pharmacological properties
It is used variously as condiment in curry powder, a dyeing agent besides as medicine. For improving skin complexion and for removing unwanted hairs, a paste of turmeric is regularly applied on the face. As an ingredient in the curry powder it improves the flavour and functions as an antiseptic, anti – poisonous and anti – oxidant factor. Turmeric is aromatic, stimulant, tonic, carminative and anithelminthic. A very popular recipe with turmeric is Haridra – khandhum which is the best medicine for curing pruritis, urticaria, and all skin diseases. In Indian system of medicine, turmeric is used as a stomachic, tonic, blood purifier, anti – diabetic, alterative, anti -cancerous etc. It is also prescribed for common cold, skin infections, indolent ulcers, inflamed joints and ophthalmic.
Biologically turmeric is having antiseptic, anti – cancerous, antihepatotoxic, anti – malarial, anti diabetic properties etc. Turmeric is also gaining importance in Alzheimer disease treatment now.

Vernacular names Ela (Sanskrit), Elayachi (Hindi), Elam (Malayalam)
Dry capsules of cardamom on steam distillation yields essential oil. The principal constituents of the oil are cineol, terpinine, limonene, sabinene, terpenylacetate and terpineol in the form of formic and acetic esters. Fatty acids like caprylic, oleic, palmitic, myristic etc are also present.
Pharmacological uses
In medicines it is used as an adjuvant to carminative drugs. Powdered cardamom mixed with ginger, clove and caraway is good stomachic and useful in atonic dyspepsia.
Cardamom is used as a home remedy for indigestion, nausea, halitosis and bronchial infections. It is used in Yogas to cure skin diseases, colds and inflammations. Eladigana as the name signifies starts with Ela as its first ingredient is used for curing vata and kapha doshas, itching,poisoning and improving digestion, curing vomiting, cough etc. In Unani medicine cardamom oil is used in vitiligo psoriasis etc.
Vernacular names – jatiphalah, jatipatri (Sanskrit), Jaiphal, Javitri, (Hindi), Jathipatri (Malayalam).
Nutmeg two products viz. Kernel and mace. The flavour and therapeutications of nutmeg are due to the volatile oil. The percentage of volatile oil in nutmeg varies from 6 – 16% according to the origin and quality of the spices. Oil of a nutmeg is a mobile, almost colourless or pale yellow liquid with characteristic odour with d – pinene and d – camphene as the major components. Together they constitute 80% of the oil. Nutmeg mace also contains a volatile oil ( 4 – 15%). The oil closely resembles nutmeg oil in odour, flavour and composition.
Pharmacological properties
Both nutmeg kernel and mace are used as condiment and in medicine. Narcotic, astringent, nerve tonic properties are attributed to nutmeg, besides carminative and aphrodisiac effects. It forms a constituent of preparations prescribed for dysentery, stomach ache, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, malaria, rheumatism, sciatica and early stages of leprosy.
Excessive doses have a narcotic effect, symptoms of delirium and epileptic convulsions appear after 1 – 6 hours. Mace is also chewed for masking foul breath. Oil of nutmeg or mace has been recommended for the treatment of inflammations of bladder, wrinkles and urinary tract. The oil is somewhat toxic and should be used with caution. Nutmeg is also useful in helminthiasis, cough, asthma, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea etc. Nutmeg butter is used as a mild external stimulant in ointments, hair lotions and plasters and forms a useful application in cases of rheumatism, paralysis and sprains.
Alcoholic extracts of nutmeg show antibacterial activity.


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

few months back, i came across an article which state that some American institute has conducted research on Yoga and found it to be efficient in weight reduction of an individual who practices it. Unfortunately this institute like many other institutes and individuals has got their facts wrong as far as yoga is concerned. To begin with, the branch is known as Yog and not yoga as popularly known. Secondly the purpose of yoga is not to lose or gain or achieve health benefits. Yoga is a device to attain the eternal blissful state of mind and soul. The word yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Yuj’ meaning union or to join. Here there is union of an individuals’ soul with the supreme. This can be achieved only through meditation.
However meditation is easier said than done. Try emptying your mind of all thoughts for 10 seconds. Let not any through enter your mind or try sitting motionless for 30 minutes you will know why I say it’s difficult. Mind is the most agile substance known to us. It can travel faster than light. It governs our sense organs and we choose wrong diet and lifestyle to gratify our senses. For example a smoker is well aware about the harm smoking causes to his/her body we cannot quit smoking. Why? Because he is a slave to his senses. How many of us can really do without our morning cup of tea or coffee? We cannot because we have become dependent on these external factors and derive pleasure for it.
Yoga like Ayurveda is way of life rather than a form of exercise. In fact substantial portion of yoga is included in Ayurvedic curriculum. Practicing yoga does not mean giving up everything you like. It means gaining absolute control on one’s mind and senses so that we do not need these factors to make us happy. We learn to find external bliss within us. We experience happiness and sadness but are not affected by it. We learn to see every situation from third person’s perspective.
Another misconception on about Yoga is that it is considered synonymous with asana and pranayama. However these are only two aspects of Astang Yoga.
Yoga is one of the six orthodox systems by Patanjali. It was systemized by Patanjali. As mentioned earlier it was formulated to gain control over one self, one’s mind and senses. Once this is achieved, the soul travels from perishable worldly pleasures to the external happiness and unites with Parmatma. In Bhagwat Gita, Sri Krishna describes yoga as expertise in any work that an individual takes up. In order to achieve this, it is of prime importance that an Individual is in best of his health. This is accomplished by following the stages of Ashtang Yoga. Ashta = Eight and Ang = Parts. Ashtang yoga implies eight techniques systemized by Maharshi Patanjali. These are as follows:

Universal moral commandments
These are to be observed by every individual in order to have an ideal and righteous society. The following five yama are to be observed by everyone irrespective of caste, creed, sect, religion, age and gender.
a) Ahimsa: means non – violence, not only towards any being at physical, verbal, or mental level but there is a deeper message of love towards every single being be it humans, animals, plants, insects, reptiles etc. Non – vegetarians kill animals for food. However merely being vegetarian does not imply that a person follows ahimsa. Ahimsa is more than a form of diet; it is a state of mind. If a person completely gives up hatred and cannot think of harming anyone in the wildest of his dreams then even one of the most evil humans or most ferocious animals will be tamed by him. He would not need any form of violence to protect him. Men either kill for food or to protect one self. But by following ahimsa the need for killing dies not arise at all because a yogi believes that any creature has as much right to survive as he has. He is full of compassion and mercy for everyone including those who mean harm to him. We would fight the evil of the evil doer but never the doer himself. Being tolerant is often regarded as being weak. But the power of tolerance is known as ‘Sahan Shakti’ in Sanskrit where Sahan is to tolerate and Shakti is strength or power. If tolerance would be weakness it can never be termed as strength.
b) Satya: means truth. It takes a lot of courage to be truthful even if it means incurring a loss or inflicting harm on oneself. However, Sri Krishna says in Bhagwat Gita ‘ speak the truth, speak sweetly and with kindness. However, do not speak a truth that would harm others or hurt others. In olden days during Gurukul Parampara, the master used to teach and impart knowledge only to those who belong to either Brahmin or Ksahtreya community. Once a young boy Satyakama was interested to be a disciple of Sage Gautam. So he approached his mother Jabala and asked her about his father’s and ancestor’s origin. His mother said that she did not know about this father’s ancestral origin and hence he should go and tell Sage Gautam that is the son of jabala and so he is Satyakama Jabala. When Satyakama told this to sage Gautam the sage said ‘none but a spiritual person can be so fruitful I shall teach you’ later satyakama himself become a great sage. However, truth has to be absolute. It cannot be tampered with. If it is exaggerated or modified be awaken the interest of the masses, then it no longer remains a truth,
c) Asteya – Asteya literally means not to steal. It means a desire to possess and enjoy what it is not righteous yours. To accept credits for the work that you have not.
d) Brahmacharya – brahmacharya means life of celibacy and self astrain. In Vedas a human life was cateogorized into 4 states or ashrams as they are known. These were brahmaycharya, Gruhastha, Vanaprashtha and Sanyas. Brahmacharya ashram was a period when a student used to reside at the hermitage of his guru for 12 – 16 yrs till be completed his education. during this period he used to take the vow of celibacy. This celibacy did not only mean abstaining from having sex, it meant to abstain from seeing, touching, remembering or craving for a person of the opposite sex. By doing so a person acquires great strength , will power and longevity. Once a person gets married he enters grihasthashram. Bhramacharya has little to do with a person’s marital status. It does not mean that a person who wishes to tread the yogic path has to be a bachelor all of his life. On the contrary, most of the religious texts advocate marriage. It is possible to experience divine love without experiencing human love. Hence Brahmacharya means not to indulge in mindless sexual activities, not to be carried away by your sexual desires. Indulge in sex with legal partner but not have your heart in it.
e) Aparigraha – Prigraha means hoarding or collecting. Renunciation of this habit is aparigraha and this is an extension of asteya. Aparigraha also implies non – acquisition of things or refraining from accepting gifts. Receiving gifts as a favour or without working for it destroys one’s independence and self respect. Acquiring and collecting things which an individual does not need immediately for survival, reflects an individual’s lack of faith in God and in himself to provide for his future.

Yama are described to establish a just society where as Niyama are disciplines for one’s personal health and growth and these purifying our body and mind.
a)Shaucha – means cleanliness i.e. physical cleanliness and mental purity. Purity of body is essential for one’s health. Like Ayurveda, yoga also believes that diseases are caused mainly due to improper diet and lifestyle rather than micro organism e.g. Tuberculosis bacteria are present in air around everyone but only a few of us actually contract the disease. Reason? The affected individual’s immunity is not strong enough to combat the organisms. Hence it is important to keep the body healthy by maintaining personal hygiene, proper diet and good lifestyle. Mental purity can be attained by austerity, study of scriptueres, meditation and penance. This destroys negative emotions like sorrow, anger, hatred etc. Diet is also very important. Indian philosophy belives that a person is what he eats. All the foodstuffs are categorized in three gropus i.e. satvic, rajasi and tamasi. Satvick foodstuffs are those which help person to develop good and positive thought and makes our complexion glow. The foodstuffs which fall in this category are milk, cow ghee, honey, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, nuts, 1 year old food grain etc. Rajasi foodstuffs at the ones which make us feel active, however these also evoke emotions like anger, hatred, jealousy, etc. Chillies, tea, coffee, spices, etc fall under the rajasi category. The third category is the tamasi cateogory which include meat, stale food, etc. This type of food brings drowsiness and blunts the intellect of the person who consumes it. Yogi consumes only the satvich food and that too in limited quantity. The other two categories are stricltly prohibited for the person who practices yoga. Also a yogi has to master his sleeping habit. He must be able to fall asleep and stay awake when he decides. He should be the master of his sleep.
b) santosh – santosh means contentment or satisfaction. It means to be content and satisfied with what one gets through his her hard work and not crave for more. Desire is believed to be the cause of all the sorrow in the world. One has to realize that all the material things are perishable and being materailsitic would not make any one happy. If you have a fiat you desire for a better more luxiorious car without thinking that many individuals are lame, blind or challenged in some way or the other and cannot even more by themselves. There is nothing wrong in being ambitious and strive towards a better future but to harp on it and being jealous of someone who has it just harbours anxiety, sorrow and unhappiness. Your mind becomes to be preoccupied with material things and will never be able to concentrate on your goal i.e. the eternal bliss.
c) Tapas – it means penance or austerity. It is derived from the Sanskrit root word ‘tap’ meaning achieve one’s goal. Tapas is to gain complete control over the self on all three levels viz, physical, mental and verbal level. Unselfish service towards other fellow beings is tapas, observing fast in order to detoxify our body is tapas, having complete faith in the supreme is tapas.
d) Svadhyaya – literally means self study. Learning the meaning of the life through scriptures. Attending svadhyaya is not synonymous to attending a lecture. Here the speaker and the audience have mutual love and respect. Every one present have common and rational believes. Every one present has same goal of better society, welfare of the mankind and in the process to elevate self above the physical level. Everyone is present voluntarily. Only reading the scriptures and listening to the svadhyaya would not solve the purpose. It is also important to revise and recite what you have learnt. Even more important is to implement what one has learnt. Even more important is to implement what one has leant in day to day life. Only by doing this is the svadhayaya complete.
e) Ishavarapranidhana – it means dedication to the Lord. Offering oneself and one’s action to God. By doing so one never feels sad about his failure and is not proud about his achievements. One learns to face everything in life with equality.

Asana is described as ‘Sthiram sukham asanam’ meaning the posture where one can establish himself with stability and comfort. In order to meditate, one has to sit in one position for a long time, steadily without moving. Adopting various postures to increase the flexibility of one’s body asanas is adopted. If a person can sit steadily in one posture without moving for at least 3 hours and 30 minutes then it is said to have mastered that particular asana. Practicing the asana correctly and regularly has bestowed of many health benefits on individuals over a period of time so much that asana is used as synonym to yoga by many. But this is a wrong notion. Asana are adopted to yogis to have healthy bodies and sharp minds so that they can accomplish the further steps of Ashtang yoga. Asana has evolved over time and various forms have come in to picture like power yoga. These are primarily used for healthy and fit bodies and they definitely help one reduce or gain weight if undertaken with a suitable diet. However the underlying health problem if any has to be evaluated first. The yogi conquers the body by the practice of asanas and makes it a fit vehicle for the spirit.

Prana means the vital energy in the body or the breath and ayam means its control or dimensions. Hence pranayama means control over one’s breath. Our breathing rate and rhythm changes with our mood. Breathing is faster when we are angry or sad. It is shallow when we are anxious and hence we are told to take a deep breath when we are tensed. Our breathing is slow and deep when we are relaxed. So we see that the breath depends on our mood. Our mood in turns depends on our mind. Hence we learn to control our mind by controlling our breath. In yogic breathing certain terminologies are used which are apt to be mentioned here. Inhalation is referred as purak where as exhalation is known as ‘rechak’. Certain times you need to hold your breath in between inhalation and exhalation, this is known as ‘kumbhak’. The slower, deeper and fewer breaths one can practice to intake, the better his health is it is a common knowledge that a turtle that breaths slowly lives for hundreds of years, where as a dog who breathes rapidly has a lifespan of only 10 – 15 years. So pranayama is science of breath. Drastic and quick relief for patients of respiratory problem is one of the many benefits of pranayama that a person who practices it.

It means with drawing the sense organs from their contact with the objects n the eternal world. Very often we so engrossed in gratifying our senses that welcome our reasoning for the right and wrong. With regular practice of asana and pranayama one is able to withdraw the senses from their subject and turn them inwards to introspection. The yogi knows that the path towards satisfaction of the senses by sensual desires is broad, but that it leads to destruction and that there are many who follow it. The path of Yoga is like the sharp edge of a razor. It is difficult to tread. But eventually it will lead to glory, happiness and salvation.

After purifying the body and mind having grained complete control over one senses, one has to focus his mind on an object. This object can be within him or outside his body e.g. the centre of one’s eyebrows or flame of candle in a dark room. He is focused on his object with complete concentration and totally engrossed in it. In spite of the entire practice and complete knowledge of how mind work is essential in order to be able to concentrate on one object.

Samadhi is the end stage of yogi’s quest and the most difficult to accomplish. At this stage a yogi is beyond consciousness and yet his mind is alert although the body and senses might ne detached from the surroundings as if he is sleeping. He has merged with the eternal. His blissful state is beyond description it can only be experienced. Here it is important to state that yoga is not a religion itself. It is a way of life. Every individual irrespective of caste, creed, sex, age, religion, race and nationality are on a look out for happiness. They search for this happiness in people, money and things. But fail to be happy even if they get ever thing what they want. Yoga shows them the way to eternal bliss, which they will find within themselves.


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

vian influenza or popularly known as bird flu is a most talked about disease these days. Lakhs of poultry birds have been killed due to this disease. There are lots of misconceptions and confusions regarding this dreadful disease.
Avian (bird) influenza is an infection caused by avian influenza virus. It is also known as H5N virus. Wild birds especially water birds are natural hosts for these virus. They carry them in their intestines. These virus do not affect the wild birds but are highly contagious among birds and cause a great deal of harm in domesticated birds, chicken, turkeys, ducks etc by making them ill and eventually killing them.

Infected birds shed influenza virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and faces. These contaminate the cages, surfaces, etc used by birds. Non – infected birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated secretions, excretions or with surfaces that are contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds. Domesticated birds may become infected with avian influenza virus through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or through contact with surfaces, diet or cages or materials like water or food that have been contaminated with the virus. Feco to oral route is the commonest mode of spread among birds.
In domestic poultry two main forms of diseases distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The low pathogenic from causes only mild symptoms such as ruffled feathers and a low egg production. The highly pathogenic form spreads more rapidly through flocks of poultry. This form may cause disease that affects multiple internal organs and has a high mortality rate almost 90 – 100% within 48 hours.
Outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 occurred among poultry in eight countries in Asia (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam) during late 2003 and early 2004. At that time, more than 100 million birds in the affected countries either dead from the disease or were killed in order to try to control the outbreaks. By March 2004, the outbreak was reported to be under control.
Beginning in June 2004, new outbreaks of influenza H5N1 among poultry and wild birds were reported in Asia. Since that time, the virus has spread geographically. Reports of H5N1 infection in wild birds in Europe began in mid 2005. In early 2006, influenza A H5N1 infection in wild birds and poultry were reported in Africa and the Neat East.
Human cases of influenza A H5N1 infection have been reported in Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Indonesia, China, Egypt, Iraq, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam.

There are three types of influenza viruses; A, B, and C. Humans can be infected with all three type. Influenza virus is classified into sub types and named on basis of 2 proteins on surface of virus. Hemaggulutinin (HA).
There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes. Numerous permutations and combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. Only some influenza A subtypes are currently in general circulation among people. Other subtypes are found most commonly in other animal species.
Avian influenza A virus strains are classified as low pathogenic (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI). LPAI viruses can cause mild disease in poultry. HPAI viruses can cause severe illness and high mortality in poultry.

3 prominent sub types of avian influenza A virus are known to infect both humans and birds. These are AH5, AH7, AH9.
AH5 and AH7 have 9 different sub types. These can be high pathogenic or low pathogenic form. These can cause mild to severe illness in humans and can be sometimes fatal.
AH9 has 9 different subtypes and is of low pathogenic form

Influenza B virus are usually found only in humans. These viruses are not classified according or subtype. Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality among humans.

Influenza type C viruses can cause mild illness in humans and do not cause epidemics or pandemics. These viruses are not classified according to subtype.

Avian influenza viruses do not directly infect humans. Humans are infected from contact with infected poultry, infected birds their secretions, their excreta, surfaces contaminated by these secretions. As influenza virus have ability to change the transmission of illness from one person to other very rare. There is no evidence that properly cooked poultry or eggs can be a source of infection for avian influenza viruses. More than 190 human cases have been reported since 1997. In 2003, influenza A (H7N7) infections occurred in Netherlands among persons who handled infected poultry and among their families during an outbreak of avian flu among poultry. More than 80 cases of H7N7 illness were confirmed by testing. The symptoms were mostly eye infections, with some respiratory system. Infection and disease in people caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 have been identified recently in Vietnam and Thailand. On February 1, 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that laboratory test results had confirmed two fatal cases of human to human transmission may have occurred. The cases occurred in two sisters who were part of cluster of four cases of severe respiratory illness in a single family. According to the World Health Organization, the world is on the verge of an outbreak that could kill up to 7.4 million people. A flu pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. There is a widespread and growing outbreak in several continents, with cases found in poultry populations in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Human cases have been confirmed and there are concerns that it could become contagious among humans and spark a pandemic. International tests have confirmed a 30 year old Indonesian man who died in April 2006 had bird flu. Indonesia has the world’s second highest bird flu death toll for humans after Vietnam.

Symptoms of avian influenza in humans are fever, headache, dry cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose and muscle aches. Eye infections like conjunctivitis, redness, itching etc. Pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress, multi – organ failure and other severe and life threatening complications. The symptoms of avian influenza may depend on which virus caused the infection.
A laboratory test is needed to diagnose the presence of virus in humans. Local tests are not considered definitive and blood samples are sent to WHO affiliated laboratory.

Coconut comes with a promise The promise of good health

Saturday, February 15th, 2014

Good health starts with coconut. It not only helps against digestive and nutrient absorption disorders. It is also found effective in fighting degenerative diseases. So, to discover, a healthier life, all you have to add is coconut in your diet.

How to make lip smacking Tender Coconut Soufflé
Ingredients: tender coconut, sugar 80 gms, Egg white – egg yolk, gelatine 10 gms. Coconut milk 25 ml freshly grated coconut squeezed with warm water or coconut milk dissolved in warm milk or warm water.

Method : mix the coconut milk and egg yolk thoroughly to form a thick blend. Add sugar pour the mixture into a vessel and bring to heat in a water container to make the custard (do not boil directly). Cool when custard is ready. Dissolve the gelatine in warm water and add to the custard. Add the tender coconut pulp and stiffly beaten white of egg. Pour the mixture in separate moulds and set in refrigerator. Unmould and serve with freshly desicciated coconut as garnish or with any sauce or fruit of your choice.


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

A registered Dietician assesses the nutritional needs of a person with diabetes and calculates the amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and total calories needed per day. He will then convert this information into recommending the list of food a diabetic can eat in the daily diet.

Recommended daily food portion
Daily calories count: carbohydrates – 50 % to 60%
Protein – 12 % to 20 %
Fat – not more than 30%.

Low Glycemic Index: doesn’t create rapid peaks and troughs in blood glucose levels.

Complex high – fibre carbohydrates: scientific evidence show that diet is high in fibre is protective against diabetes. Fibre is capable of slowing down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrate and increasing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, thereby preventing rise s in blood sugar. It is advisable to restrict the intake of refined carbohydrates and avoid high fat foods.
Example: – oats, cereals, legumes, wholegrain products, dried beans, peas, lentils, fruits and vegetables.

Alpha – lipoic acid: is a vitamin like antioxidant that enhances the glucose uptake and improves nerves damage of diabetes patients.
Example: cold water fish like salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring).

Omega 6 fatty acid – protect against the development of diabetes neuropathy.

Example: blackcurrant oil, primrose oil, borage oil).

Artificial sweeteners – such as aspartame and saccharin.

Restricted and to avoid:
Refined and simple carbohydrates – such as sucrose, glucose or fructose, white rice, white bread, table sugar, sweets, honey, corn – syrup.

High fat food
Alcohol: higher quantities of alcohol can cause health problems like liver damage and increase the risk of heart disease.

Grill coriander Prawn (4 servings)
20 king size prawn, peeled, leave head and tail intact
3 tbsp coriander, finely chopped
½ cup lime juice
½ tbsp green chilli, seeded and finely chopped
½ tbsp red chilli, seeded and finely chopped
1 cloves garlic, crushed
A dash of pepper
1 tbsp cumin seeds
1 ½ sesame oil
Preparation: – in a large bowl mix coriander, lime juice, red and green chilli, cumin seed, garlic, sesame oil and pepper well. 2. Marinate prawn with mixture for about 20 minutes. 3. Grill prawn and serve hot with sauce of your choice.

Baked Fillet with Ginger and Spring Onions (4 servings).
4 pieces of snapper fish
1 tbsp reduced – salt soya sauce
1 tbsp fresh ginger, grated
2 spring onion, sliced
1tsp sesame oil
A dash of pepper
Preparation: 1. Preheat oven to 200 c. Prepare a metal baking dish with foil. Spray foil with cooking spray and place fish in foil in a single layer. 2. In a bowl combine and toss well soya sauce, ginger, spring onion and sesame oil. 3. Pour mixture into fish and fold the foil. Baked for 8 minutes. 4. Serve hot.

Lemon chicken (4 servings)
4 chicken breast halves, skinned and boned
2 lemons (juice of 2 lemons)
1 tbsp butter, unsalted
½ cup white wine, dry
Pinch of black pepper
Preparation: 1. Flatten chicken to about 10 mm thickness and marinate with lemon juice and pepper in refrigerator at least hours. 2. Melt butter in a skillet and sauté breasts for 5 minutes on each side. Remove and place on hot platter to keep warm. 3. In a sauce pan, bring wine to boil for few minutes, then pour over chicken.

Melon Salad (4 servings)
1 cup honeydew, cubed
1 cup watermelon, cubed
1 cup rock melon, cubed
1 cup plain low – fat yoghurt
1 tbsp lime juice
½ tbsp honey
Some ground ginger, optional
Preparation: 1. In a large bowl combine all the ingredient. 2. Keep in the fridge and serve chill.

Stir – fried Vegetables (3 servings)
1 medium green capsicum
1 carrot sliced
100g French beans
1 ½ tbsp reduced – salt soy sauce
2 cloves garlic, crushed
1 tsp vegetable oil
¾ cup chicken stock
1 tbsp finely chopped shallot
1 tsp corn flour for thickening
Preparation :
Add soy sauce, corn flour into chicken stock. Mix well and put aside. Heat oil in a non – stick pan. Add in garlic and shallot and cook for 15 seconds. Add in capsicum carrot and beans. Stir fried for 1 minute and add in stock.
Bring mixture to boil. Reduce heat and simmer for another 3 minutes.

Steam Tofu with Spring Onions
400 g firm tofu, halved horizontally
1 tbsp reduced – salt soy sauce
2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
1 tbsp vegetable oil
1 tbsp finely chopped shallot
3 spring onions finely sliced.
2 tsp sesame seeds, toasted
Preparation: steam tofu on boiling water for 4 minutes. Heat up pan with vegetable and dry garlic and shallot till golden brown. Off the heat and mix in spring onion and soya sauce. Drizzle steam tofu with dressing then sprinkle with sesame seeds. Serve hot.


Saturday, February 15th, 2014

Differential Diagnosis between – simple dandruff, fungal infection and increased turnover of the cells of scalp.
If there is doubt about the possibility of dandruff or fungal infection of scalp, fungus – test is a must. Because sometimes it is very confusing. In general simple dandruff is powdery, can be dry or oily and there is mild itching. In case of fungal infection there is severe scaling of scalp with severe itching and burning sensation. In advanced cases skin of fore head, eye brows, eye lashes and other body hairs are also infected by fungus. Sometimes a case seems to be dandruff or fungal infection but actually it may be a case of increased turnover of cells of scalp. In this case scals are present but there is no fungal infection. Here turnovers of cells of scalp are rapid and dead cells are present in between hairs. This condition is generally present in patients with very dandruff hairs.
Different Diagnosis between : simple Androgenetic alopecia, front M and top raring.
In androgenetic alopecia, front M is present and becomes deep with time, after sometime back – baldness appears. In front M only hairline is of M shape and general hair fall may be present. These two conditions are present only in male patients. Front M can be present rarely in female patients in old age. In case of top raring hairs present on upper part of head becomes rare in density and hair line remains in normal stage. Hairs present on area above ears and neck are normal in density. This condition is common in both male and female. Sometimes advanced case of Androgenetic alopecia looks like the case of top raring. In this case the history of patient is very important. In case of Androgenetic Alopecia first of all hair line from front recedes and after sometime back baldness appears. But in top –raring overall density of hairs from upper part of the head decreases.
Differential Diagnosis between:
Alopecia areata and patchy hair loss due to fungal infection
They are of two types of patchy hair loss. In case of Alopecia areata bald patches are present without fungal infection and there isn’t any specific cause for this type of hair loss. But there can be patchy hair loss due to fungal infection.
In this type of case fungus – test is a must. In case of fungal infection scaling, itching, and burning sensation are present.