Archive for October, 2013

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Tuesday, October 15th, 2013

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Modern medicine VS. AYURVEDIC MEDICINE in the U.S.

Sunday, October 6th, 2013

Modern health care or ancient care? Which path does one take? Which path is the correct path? Which path will give us long lives? All these kinds of questions arise to us whether we have an illness or not. We all want to live in a disease free society. But how do we go about doing so? The modern way, or the ancient way?

The number one cause of viagra sample death in the US today is cardiovascular disease. Even if high – tech surgical procedures are used, the result isn’t long – term.

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What is the main problem with modern health care today? Modern medicine only focuses on the acute disease treatment, rather than on prevention. And because of this, patient get more sick and then die. The population suffers from high rates of chronic diseases. Modern medical practices often fail to prevent disease. Pharmaceuticals and high technology diagnostic approaches frequently have hazardous side effects. The cost for health care is soaring. Then there is the current issue of the rise of infectious diseases. With allopathic treatment, it is frequently the cause of disease that indicates that the modern system of health care is incomplete and should be fundamentally transformed.

Three fourths of United States health care expenditures are spent in care for chronic diseases for chronic diseases in 40% of the population. This increase of modern diagnostic and treatment services is the most critical problem facing our nation.

Studies have showed us that 50 % of deaths and 70% of disease in our country today are caused by the individual’s Lifestyle, for example, smoking, drugs and alcohol abouse, diet and physical inactivity. Another major problem that arises is that our physicians and health care professionals are not trained to address such causes of disease. They lack the technologies, facilities and knowledge to detect the first stages of diseases. So who do we really blame?

It is in the hands of the government for the health of the nation as a whole.

Patients have become dissatisfied because of the damaging side effects of medicine. And this dissatisfaction is strong and evident enough for a more complete and prevention oriented health care which is of course free of harmful side effects.

With Ayurveda, patients are beginning to feel healothy, blissful and very satisfied with their results. Ayurveda encompasses all a

 

Popularising Ayurveda in Germany

Sunday, October 6th, 2013

Germany forwards a lesson in treating diseases the natural way. It allows any practical science including Ayurveda to be used viagra sales to treat patients provided they are effective. This has given Ayurveda a big bost in germany. But the shortage of qualified ayurveda physicians gave way to the mushrooming of quacks in Europe. Terming any massage as Ayurveda treatment, people who has seen some massage somewere in India, started institutions claiming them to be Ayurveda Hospitals.

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Here comes the importance of Dr. E P Jeevan who runs a 40 bedded Ayurvedic Hospital in Germany.

The mashrooming massage centres under the guise of Ayurveda have been earning a bad name for this age – old system of Indian medicine in Germany and over western countries, according to E.P. Jeevan, consultant physician and teacher in ayurveda in Ayurveda in Germany.

Dr. Jeevan from Vadakara Kerala, India, who has been running an Ayurvedic Health care centre at Nuremberg in Germany, say that Ayurveda is yet to be a recognized branch of medicine in Germany.

According to Dr Jeevan, Germans can practice Ayurveda provided they are either ‘ Heilpraktikers’ who have passed an examination to practice other alternative system of medicine like homoeopathy, herbal medicine, bach flower remedies, acupuncture, Ayurveda etc., or they have a degree in modern medicine and are trained in Germany. Such persons can practice any system of medicine for the benefit of their patients.

An Indian doctor, whether qualified in modern medicine and ayurveda, are not are not allowed to practice in Germany before undergoing a few semesters of study at a German medical university, says Dr. Jeevan . Or else, he must undergo a Heilpraktikers’ who have passed an examination to practice other alternative systems of medicine, batch flower remedies, acupuncture Ayurveda, etc. or they have a degree in modern medicine and are trained in Germany. Such persons can practice any system of medicine for the benefit of their patients.

An Indian doctor, whether qualified in modern medicine or Ayurveda, are not allowed to practice in Germany before undergoing few semesters of study at a German medical university, says Dr. jeevan. Or else, he must undergo a Heilprakticker course to practice Ayurveda in Germany.

In spite of all the rules and regulations, Indians, Sri Lankans, and germans who are not qualified in any of the medical streams have been practicind Ayurveda in Germany. A good number of them are engineers, businessmen, yoga teachers, spiritual masters, etc. they make money by running Ayurvedic cooking centres and work as diet counselors, pulse readers and even as Ayurvedic cosmeticians, giving rise to the popular notion that Ayurveda is a mere massage system, a cosmetic system, a religion or sect,” pointed out Dr. Jeevan.

“Going to India for a Panchakarma treatment, sitting on the beaches of Goa or Kovalam, visiting some spiritual centres or ashrams, etc., will not make Ayurvedic practitioners. But, unfortunately, this is what most of the German people, who do not have any medical background, follows nowadays. “ Dr. Jeevan stressed the need for strict regulation of Ayurveda – related courses at tourist places.

According to him, Germany has got a great herbal tradition with real knowledge about potency, taste, properties, etc. Germans believe that they got this tradition from the gypsies who came from the Indian subcontinent in the days of yore.

Dr. Jeevan is married to Heike alias Hyma, a German whom he met while working as a teacher at an Ayurvedic collage in Coimbatore.

He also stresses the need to retain the traditional values and principles of Ayurveda by imparting this knowledge to the West. Any misuse of Ayurveda should be checked and the Government should launch a distance education programme in Ayurveda and ensure recognition for the same by the German Government, he added.

“There should be a body that can represent Ayurveda in the European Health Ministry, besides a council where Ayurveda in the European Health Ministry, besides a council where Ayurvedic partitioners can register,” says Dr. Jeevan.

When SCIATICA gives you pain

Sunday, October 6th, 2013

The non prescription viagra nerve starting from spinal chord end and going right up to end of toe on feet is called sciatica nerve. This is the longest nerve in our body. Many branches of this nerve in the hips, thighs, areas

Above knee, calf muscles etc. this nerve passes through many narrow regions, and whenever it encounters blockage or pressure on it, pain is the result. This ia a relatively common from of low back pain and leg pain.

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Sciatica is usually caused by pressure on the sciatic nerve from a herniated disc (also referred to as a ruptured disc (also referred to as a ruptured disk, etc.). the problem is pften diagnosed as a “ radiculopathy”, meaning that a disc has protruded from its normal position in the vertebral column and is putting pressure on the radicular nerve (nerve root), which connects with the sciatic nerve.

For some people, the pain from sciatica can be severe and debilitating. For others, the pain from sciatica might be infrequent and irritating, but has the potential to get worse. Usually, sciatica only affects one side of the lower body, and the pain often radiates from the lower back all the way through the back of the thigh and down through the leg. Depending on where the pain may also radiate to the foot or toes.

One or more of the following sensations may occur as a result of sciatica: pain in the near or leg that is worse when sitting burning or tingling down the leg weakness, numbness or difficulty moving the leg or foot. A constant pain on one side of the near. A shooting pain that makes it difficult to stand up.

While sciatica can be very painful, it is rare that permanent nerve damage (tissue damage) will result. Most sciatica pain result from inflammation and will get better within two weeks to a few months. Also, because the spinal cord is not present in the lower (lumber) spine, a herniated disc in this area of the anatomy does not present a danger of paralysis.

Symptoms that may constitute a medical emergency include progressive weakness in the legs  or bladder/ bowel incontinence. Patients with these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention.

Any condition that causes irritation or impingement on the sciatic nerve can cause the pain associated with sciatica. According to modern science. The most common cause is lumbar herniated disc. Other common causes of sciatica include lumbar spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Impressive names, but difficult to remember for ordinary patients.

In the vertebrae of the spine, the displacement of cartilage, swelling in the cartilage or fibroisitis also causes pressure on the nerve and acute pain. Patient can not walk easily and limps.

This condition is termed Gudhrasi in ayurveda. It is caused mostly be vata, while sometimes it is due to vata and kapha dosha both prevail by reduced hunger, lack of appetite/ taste of the food, swelling on the face or below eyes during morning. Selling generally disappears after few hours every day. Many people assume that sciatica is not curable. In fact, as the time passes, the ailment becomes difficult o cure.

In modern science, X- rays, MRI etc are used for investigation and generally results in surgical solution, however, in the opinion of author, ayurvedic treatment can cure a majority of such patient.

Foamentation:

When sciatica is accompanied by kapha vitiation, fomentation helps substantially. Formentation can be applied through three ways. Electric heating pad can be applied to paining areas. Advantage of electric pad is the regulation of temperature and time of heating, plus convenience of treatment when patient is attending to other pastimes. Second alternative is putting fine beach sand in a cloth bag/ pillow, heating the bag on hot plate (used for roasting chapatti in india) and applying to aching areas. Regulation of time and temperature is to be done by patient himself. Third alternative is for those who find getting beach sand is difficult. One can take sea salt crystals in cloth bag and use in identical manner.

Whatever method adopted, fomentation is seen to help in sciatica pain

Massage

When sciatica is caused by Vata dosha, one can gently massage from waist to foot sole using seasame oil or Mahanarayan Tailam. Massage can be done by patient himself or someone else can do it. Patient should lie down on the bed with stomach touching the bed. All the back side becomes available to a massage expert then. There are many accu pressure points located on waist, hip crease, thighs, calf muscles and feet. One can use stale cow urine or its distillate for massage and it is seen that rapid relief is obtained in that case. Special massage is necessary  to soles of the feet. Ayurveda terms it as ‘ Pad Abhyanga’. The ancient sage have mentioned that the ‘Pad Abhyanga’ cures Gudhrasi – Sciatica.

Parijat: the best inexpensive remedy Parijat is a common tree which bears very attractive flowers having orange colored stem and few white petals. The flower fall to the ground during night and even a little shake given to tree causes flowers to fall to the ground.

Take 21 leaves of this tree. Grind them coarsely and add in two cups of water. Add in ½ tsp of ginger powder. Boil on slow heat till half cup remains. Add in 1 tsp of Castor oil in the tea made this way and stir well before drinking warm Castor oil can be increase up to 6 tsp (30ml) gradually, as body digests it. One can add ½ tsp of Giloy powder, if ginger powder increases inflammation during motion. This tea should be drunk on empty stomach morning. Nowadays tablets made from Parijatak extract are available, which can be taken 2-2 (morning, evening). Author prefers fresh leaves, tea rather than extract tablets. Many Indian pharmacies now make these tablets.

Cow urine + Castor Oil

For those who do not have access to parijata tree, but you can obtain cow urine or its distillate (Gomutra Arka), they can take 2-4 tsp fresh cow urine with 2 tsp fresh Castor oil stirred in, morning as well as evening. Fresh cow urine is very ‘ Tikshana’ (strong) and many are unable to drink it. For such patients, 2-4 tsp Gomutra arka can be substituted.

Cow urine or its distillate opens microchannels blocked by kapha rapidly. Castor oil is a well known enemy of Vata dosha. Mixture of cow urine and castor oil cures very old sciatica pain also.

Shilajit Rasayana

This formulation is a classical one. Contains giloy. Guggul and Shilajit. While Giloy acts on kapha dosha due to bitter taste, Guggula is a highly benific in all vata diseases. Shilajit reduces all blockages, swellings, ama and thus reduces pressure on sciatica nerve, causing pain relief. Take 2-2 tab each 250 mg, slight chew and swallow with water.

Ushnodaka

Patients suffering from sciatica should not drink fridge water. They should drink luke warm water throughout the day.

Food – Lifestyle

After fasting for 2-3 days in beginning (only ushnodaka), patients can take light food such as rice, dhal, green gram khitchri, green vegitables or their soups, chapatti, buttermilk (which is not sour) cow ghee, cow butter etc. avoid legumes. Green gram exception. Sleep well during night and do not sleep during day.

It one follows the restrictions meticulously; sciatica will be cured, no matter how old. Old

Ayurvedic Concept of ideal Health

Sunday, October 6th, 2013

Ayurvedic Concept of ideal Health

According to the philosophical concepts on which ayurveda is based , all bodies – material, living, conscious and unconscious – are evolved out of Prakrti (the ultimate ground) by the viagra professional subtle influence of the purusa, the absolute or the primal self conscious principle and every component of the human organism is created out of the tattvas (fundamental compounds) as evolved out of the prakrti. When all the eleven indriyas (mind, the five sense organs and the five organs of motion and actions), the three dosas (the air, radiant, energy and water), the agni (digestive fire). The meals (excreations), the kriyas (like sleep, elimination, respiratory, etc.) and the seven dhatus (elementary stuff) are in normal state and in equilibrium then the health is in an ideal state. the main aims of ayurveda include maintenance of this equilibrium, and its repair in case of any imbalance and derangement. Ayurveda attempts this process by the application  of all spiritual  and material resources available to man.

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Philosophy of Ayurveda

There is a remarkable theory in ayurveda to the effect that man is a  miniature from of the universe, a ‘microcosm’ of the macrocosm. The material contents of man and universe are constituted of the same five  primal elements: prthvi (solid component to both), apas (the liquid), tejas (the radient energy, body heat, digestive fire ), and akasa  (the orifices and empty spaces inside the body).

Ayurvedic Defination of Health

In ayurvedic medicine, health is defined as soundness of sarira  (body), manas (mind) and atman (self). Each of these must be nurtured if the individual is to have good health.

Concept of Disease

Ayurveda is basically a humoural medical system and conceives of three essential humours, which cause disease if they became imbalanced. These three humours are: vata (air), pitta(bile) and kapha (phlegm), occasionally in the surgical tradition a fourth humour blood – was also added.

Vayu:

Vayu is self – begotten, eternal, all pervading and all – powerful in its action and control over all space. It control the creation, growth and disintegration of all living organisms.according to location and functions it is of five types: prana vayu ( maintain the breath, transmit food ), samana vayu (cause digestion), vyana vayu (cause perspiration) and apana vayu (cause the downward movement of stool, urine, semen and menses).

Pitta: pitta is the cosmic fiery principle. It is responsible for the creation in the body of heat, energy, pumping action of heart, skin temperature, vitality of blood… in the body, pitta is of five types: ranjaka pitta (colour producing fire), pacaka pitta (digestive fire), sadhaka pitta (motion giving fire), alocaka pitta (vision giving fire) and bhrajaka pitta (luster giving fire).

Kapha: kapha supplies the placid and cooling principles to the body. According to location and function kapha is of five kinds: kladaka (supply mucous to the system), avalambaka (transport the blood fluids), vodhaka (tasting agent), tarpaka (irritatingagent) and salesmaka (binding agent).

Vyadhis (diseases) are caused by derangement of one more of three humours and also blood. According to samhitas, vyadhi (diseases) may be four types: agantuja (extraneous), sarira (internal), manasa (mental) and swabhavika (natural).

Concept of Treatment

Direct observation is the most remarkable feature of Ayurveda but some times it is correlated with metaphysics. Samhitas accept this view and write that of all types of evidence, the most dependable ones are those that are directly observed by the eyes. In the Ayurvedic viewpoint successful medical treatment depends on four factors: the physician, substances (drug or diets), nurse and patient. Samhitas described these four factors properly. These four factors are the main mechanisms of ayurveda. It describes four essential qualities of medical factors, physician, grugs or substance, nursing attendant and patient respectively. The qualifications of physician are: clear grasp of the theoretical content of the science, a wide range of experience, practical skill and cleanliness. Qualities of drugs or substances are: abundance, applicability, multiple use and richness in efficacy. Qualifications of the nursing attendant are: knowledge of nursing techniques, practical and cleanliness. And the essential qualifications of patients are: good memory, obedience to the instructions of the doctors, courage and ability to describe the symptoms.

Influence of Ayurveda on East and West

By 400 AD, Ayurvedic works were translated into Chinese; by 700 AD, Chinese scholars were studing medicine in india at Nalandu University. Indian thought, as well as influencing Chinese medicine spirituality and philosophy through Buddhism, greatly influenced Chinese medicine and herbology through Ayurveda. In 800 AD, Ayurvedic works were translated into Arabic. In 16th Century Europe, Paracelsus, who is known as the father of modern medicine, practiced and propagated a system of  medicine, which borrowed heavily from Ayurveda. In the following discussion, we would take a global view of Ayurveda.

Below we discuss the spread of the Indian medicinal knowledge to other parts of the world.

Indian has had cultural and trade relations with Mesopotamia, gulf countries and iran even in the III Millennium BC. Seals of Bahrain type have been found in lothal, a harappan town in Gujarat. With the Arab countries india’s scientific and cultural relationship goes back to prehistory. During the medieval times such relations intensified a great deal.

No doubt lexander’s annexation of Gandhara region led to closer ties between Greece and india, but the mutual contacts go beyond to the Persian kings (cyrus, Darius etc) of mid – I millennium BCE. These Persian kings employed both Greek and Indian scholars and physicians. Quoting Fillozat, Sharma (1992) suggests that both plato and Hippocrates were influenced by Indian throught and concepts. Indian wootz steel was equally popular with the Persian kings for both its hardness and rust – free properties (Tripathi 2001).

Contacts with China and Tibet

Indian was in contact with china even during the kushana times. Bahlika was an important centre where traders from china, India and west Asia met and exchanged ideas and goods. During the Gupta period the links between India and China were firmly established. Chinese scholars like Fahiyan, Ywan Chwang, and ltsing were great cultural ambassadors between the two countries. The University of Nalanda, established during the reign of Kumaragupta, attracted a large number of scholars and students from China. Several Ayurvedic texts were translated into Chinese (Sharma 1992).

The bower manuscript (mss), which is named after its discoverer, Lieutenant H. Bower, was found in 1980, in kuchar, in Eastern, on the great caravan route of china. It was then sent to colonel J. Waterhouse, who was then the president of Asiatic Society of Bengal where the famous indologist Hoernle edited it Detailed studies of the mss is written in Indian gupta script. The use of birch – bark for writing shows that they must have come from Kashmir or udyana. Hoernle thinks that they passed themss into the hands of the writer of part IV, who would seem to have been a native of eastern Turkestan, or perhaps of china. but the ultimate owner of the whole series of manuscripts, Yasomitra, must have held a prominent position in that manuscript was contained in the relic chamber of the memorial stupa at the ming – oi of Qum Tura, built in his honur. The large medical treatise called Navanitaka forms the second part of the Bower mss dated to about the second half of the fourth century AD. The Chinese medicine system has several parallels with the Indian system. The Chinese concept of Ying and Yang is comparable to Indian Prakriti and Purusa. So also the five basic elements of the Chinese and Indian systems are similar. It seems that the pulse reading system in india was derived from the Chinese.

The Tibetan and Indian medicine systems too had close relations. The most popular Tibetan medical text is Rgyud bzi (meaning catus – tantra, four treatises) it was based on Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadesa Tantra. In the 8th Century AD Vairochana, a Tibetan scholar, translated it into Tibetan (Dash 1992). The Tibetan medicine system was greatly influenced by Ayurveda, but it is an integral part of Buddhism. Their material – medica could provide many cures for the obstinate and incurable diseases.

AYURVEDA The Traditional Indian medicine system & its Global Dissemination D. P. Agarwal & Lalit Tiwari

Sunday, October 6th, 2013

In this essay we introduce the ancient Indian medicine system and also describe its global dissemination through Buddhist monks the ayurveda spread to Tibet and china. So many Chinese scholars visited india and even studied in the ancient Indian universities. After alexanders invasion, the contacts with the greek and Persian worlds got intensified. In medieval times, during the period of the Arab world become a hub of international science and medical academy at jundishapur, both Greek and Indian savants buy viagra overnight delivery taught and translated major medical works. We would therefore go into greater detail about the Indo – Arab contacts during this period.

Probably all life forms are afflicted with disease. Disease is the basic problem faced by humans too since prehistoric times. Evidence for the existence of well – organized system of medicine in Indian can be traced back to the archaeological remains of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, from where even silajit has been reported. Ayurveda is the oldest Indian indigenous medicine system, probably with its roots in the Indus Civilisation. In the vedic period, the Osadhisukta of the Rigveda is the oldest documented knowledge about plants and herbal medicines.

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The term Ayus means duration or span of life, veda means unimpeachable knowledge. The common translation of the ayurveda is ‘science of life’. In his book Kris Morgan says that literally Ayurveda means ‘science of longevity’, but because of its divine origin, it is also called the ‘ medicine of the God’. Tradition says that Brahma (the creator) was the divine source of this science, which was brought into existence before the creation of manking. The knowledge was passed from him to the god Daksapati. Then to the two celestial physicians (the twin Asvina Kumaras), later to indra the god king, and finally to Bharadvaja, the semidivine sage. Such traditions and not to be taken literally but they only indicate the great antiquity of Ayurveda.

 

Literary Evidence

The earliest – recorded knowledge about Ayur – veda is found in the Rigveda and the Atharv – aveda, both of the second millennium BC. The Atreya Samhita is perhaps the oldest medical book in the world: it survives from Taksashila University, going back to the mid –I Millennium BC. The Atharvaveda lists eight divisions of ayurveda: internal medicine, surgery of head and neck, ophthalmology, surgery, toxicology, psychiatry, paediatrics, genontogy or science of rejuvenation and the science of fertility. At about 500 BC in the University of Banaras, Susruta, a surgeon, who developed the operative techniques of rhinoplasty (plastic surgery), wrote the Susruta Samhita, which describes a highly developed surgery. The physician CCaraka revised and supplemented the Atreya Samhita; his book, the Carak Samhita is a vast work on internal medicine.

Susruta Samhita: According to Susruta Samhita the purpose of Ayurveda is not only to cure illness and affliction but also to preserve health and ensure a long happy life. Susruta Samhita deals specially with the thereutic branch of Ayurveda. It contains one hundred and twenty. Chapters, distributed in five divitions: Suthrathana (fundamental postulates cover 46 chapters), Nidanasthana (pathology, covers 16 chapters), Sarirasthana (embryology and anatomy covers 8 chapers) and Uttaratantra (specialized knowledge covers 66 chapters) respectively.

Caraka Samhita:

Caraka Samhita is an exhaustive work on medicine. It is said that Caraka’s original was the Samhita of Agnivesa, a disciple of the medical sage Atreya. Long passages in the Caraka Samhita are in the form of questions and answers between Atreya and Agnivesa. Caraka is a class title of a school of physicians, existing from vedic times and also the personal title of a physician in the court of king Kaniska. (There is no unanimity about Caraka’s date yet). The subject matter of the Caraka Samita has been divided into 8 sections and 120 chapters. The total number of chapters (120) probably refers to the maximum life span (120 years) of man because the ultimate object of treatise is to promote longevity.

More then 600 drugs of animal, plant and mineral origins are used in the Caraka and about 650 in the Susruta Samhita. Susruta mentions more then 300 different operations employing 42 different surgical processes and 121 different types of instruments. The samhitas divide ayurveda into 8 different branches: Salyatantra (surgical knowledge), Salakyatantra (treatment of diseases of the ears, nose, eye, tongue, oral cavity and throat), Bhutavidya (knowledge of mental diseases, supernatural origins diseases), Kaumarabhrtya (care of children and infantile disorders), Agadatantra (toxicology), Rasayantra (syrup, tonic knowledge) and Vajikaranatantra (knowlwdge of virility).

Ayurveda deals with the medical subjects like genetics, gynaecology, aetilogy, surgery, physiology, biology, diet, ethics, personal hygiene, social medicine, allied subjets like animal biology, botany, cultivation, pharmacognosy, chemistry, cosmology, ect.

Epiliepsy – Managment in Ayurveda.

Saturday, October 5th, 2013

The chief source of ancient Indian Aryan culture
and medicine are the four Vedas that are
traditionally believed to be revealed to the sages
by Brahma (the creator) some 6,000 years before
Christian era. Most western scholars believe that
the oldest of the four Vedas was compiled during
the second millennium BC. The word Ayurveda
(in Sanskrit Ayu means life, and Veda means to
know) means the knowledge of life by which the
nature of life is understood and thus life is
prolonged. Unfortunately cheap canadian viagra Ayurveda is not
available in its original form, but most of its
contents are revealed to us by the Samhitas (the
encyclopedic works) of Caraka and Sushruta.
These texts originally written about 1,000 BC are
considered to be the most authentic and renowned
representatives of the original Ayurveda.1
Caraka
Samhita (around 1,000-800 BC), a treatise on the
ancient Indian system of medicine was composed
by Agnivesa, redacted by Caraka and
reconstructed by Drdhabala. The Sushruta
Samhita has been acknowledged as one of the
greatest of its kind in Sanskrit literature and is
important from the surgical point of view.

Definition
In most Ayurvedic texts, epilepsy has been
mentioned as Apasmara or Apasmrti, and has
been described as one of the earliest eight diseases
known (diagnosed) that can be controlled only
with medical therapies and can sometimes be incurable and remain uncontrolled.

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Clinical description, classification and etiology
It is classified as prodromal symptoms and signs
(purvarupa) and clinical manifestations (rupa).
The prodrome (purvarupa) includes: contraction
of eyebrows, constant irregular movement of
eyes, hearing of such sounds as are non-existent,
excessive discharge of saliva and nasal excreta,
disinclination for food (anorexia and indigestion),
distension of abdomen, body aches, transient
blackout, giddiness, profuse sweating, increased
thirst, fainting, hallucinations, falling and
insomnia.

In Ayurveda, clinical manifestations of
epilepsy (rupa) are divided into four types
according to the dominant dosa (humour) involved
in its pathogenesis: Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja and
Sannipataja. The Vataja type is characterized by
frequent fits, regaining consciousness in shortest
time interval; bulging eyes; excessive crying,
frothing at mouth; irregularly contracted fingers;
reddish rough and blackish nails, eyes, face and
skin; hallucinations and trembling. Kaphaja type
has features of prolonged fits with delayed
recovery; increased frothing at mouth; white nails,
eyes, face and skin; and visions of white, heavy,
unctuous, smooth objects (description like grand
mal seizures). Pittaja type is characterized by
regaining consciousness in shorter periods,
scratching of ground, greenish-yellow and coppery
nails, eyes, face and skin; and visions of bloody,
agitated, irritated, frightful and burning objects
(description like partial complex seizures). The
fourth type, the Sannipatika form of the disease,
is caused by the simultaneous vitiation of all the
three dosas that gives rise to a combination of
symptoms and signs and is incurable (description
like intractable epilepsy)

In Ayurvedic texts, three basic factors have
been implicated for the etiology of epilepsy.
Endogenous factors (genetic, congenital,
constitutional, enzymatic disturbances and
idiopathic); Exogenous factors (intake of
unwholesome and unhygienic foods, aggravation
of vata dosa due to trauma, worms and other environmental factors); and Psychological factors
(excessive worry, grief, fear, passion, anger,
anxiety and excitement). The aggravated dosa
spreads throughout the body through the nerves
(dhamanis) leading to the manifestation of the
epileptic fit in the form of shaking jerks or
convulsions (akshepaka) or episodes of brief
unconsciousness without shaking (apatantraka).

Clinical examination and diagnosis
A comprehensive evaluation of the patient (rogi
pariksha) preceeds the disease diagnosis (roga
pariksha). Ayurveda emphasizes on a detailed
history of the patient for a correct diagnosis.

TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY
Various treatment modalities that include strong
elimination and alleviation therapies, depending
upon specific requirements are mentioned as being
useful for epilepsy patients. When epilepsy is
associated with extrinsic factors, then mantras
(hymns) have been recommended. The physician
is advised to first take steps for the awakening of
heart channels and mind blocked by dosas
(humors) by drastic emesis (Vatika Apasmara),
enema (Paittika Apasmara) and purgatives
(Slaismika Apasmara). Drug formulations have
been recommended only after the patient has
been cleansed by all means and consoled well.1
A wide variety of ghrtas (purified butters)
have been recommended for internal use. One of
the most important among these is Maha Panca
Gavya Ghrta. Use of mixtures of ghrta and taila
(oil) cooked with drugs has also been mentioned.
Oils cooked with different herbal and animal
products have been recommended for anointing
the body of the patient. Even nasyas (nasal
applications) have been recommended. The use
of a wide variety of anjanas (collyriums) and
anjana vartikas (collyriu sticks) to bring the
patient to senses has also been mentioned. A
variety of Ayurvedic medicines for epilepsy
available in the Indian market include:
Asvagandhadyarishta, Bali Tail, Brahmi ghruta,
chandanadi tail, Chaturmukha rasa, haratala
bhasma, Kalyanaka ghruta, Kumaryasava,
Mahakalayanaka ghruta, Mahamrutyunjaya
rasa,Rajata bhasma, saarasvatarishta,
sarpagandha vati, Svarna bhasma,
Svarnamakshika bhasma, Vaatakulantaka rasa,
and Yogendra rasa.
2
The modes of administration of drugs for
epilepsy recommended in Ayurveda include
external applications, internal use, application in the eyes and nose. The only first-aid measure
recommended in epilepsy is blood-letting
(Siravedha) from the veins of the temples.
Cauterization of both the parietal bones with
needles (Soocivedha) has also been mentioned