Ayurvedic Concept of ideal Health
According to the philosophical concepts on which ayurveda is based , all bodies – material, living, conscious and unconscious – are evolved out of Prakrti (the ultimate ground) by the viagra professional subtle influence of the purusa, the absolute or the primal self conscious principle and every component of the human organism is created out of the tattvas (fundamental compounds) as evolved out of the prakrti. When all the eleven indriyas (mind, the five sense organs and the five organs of motion and actions), the three dosas (the air, radiant, energy and water), the agni (digestive fire). The meals (excreations), the kriyas (like sleep, elimination, respiratory, etc.) and the seven dhatus (elementary stuff) are in normal state and in equilibrium then the health is in an ideal state. the main aims of ayurveda include maintenance of this equilibrium, and its repair in case of any imbalance and derangement. Ayurveda attempts this process by the application of all spiritual and material resources available to man.
generic cialis soft 20mg
Philosophy of Ayurveda
There is a remarkable theory in ayurveda to the effect that man is a miniature from of the universe, a ‘microcosm’ of the macrocosm. The material contents of man and universe are constituted of the same five primal elements: prthvi (solid component to both), apas (the liquid), tejas (the radient energy, body heat, digestive fire ), and akasa (the orifices and empty spaces inside the body).
Ayurvedic Defination of Health
In ayurvedic medicine, health is defined as soundness of sarira (body), manas (mind) and atman (self). Each of these must be nurtured if the individual is to have good health.
Concept of Disease
Ayurveda is basically a humoural medical system and conceives of three essential humours, which cause disease if they became imbalanced. These three humours are: vata (air), pitta(bile) and kapha (phlegm), occasionally in the surgical tradition a fourth humour blood – was also added.
Vayu is self – begotten, eternal, all pervading and all – powerful in its action and control over all space. It control the creation, growth and disintegration of all living organisms.according to location and functions it is of five types: prana vayu ( maintain the breath, transmit food ), samana vayu (cause digestion), vyana vayu (cause perspiration) and apana vayu (cause the downward movement of stool, urine, semen and menses).
Pitta: pitta is the cosmic fiery principle. It is responsible for the creation in the body of heat, energy, pumping action of heart, skin temperature, vitality of blood… in the body, pitta is of five types: ranjaka pitta (colour producing fire), pacaka pitta (digestive fire), sadhaka pitta (motion giving fire), alocaka pitta (vision giving fire) and bhrajaka pitta (luster giving fire).
Kapha: kapha supplies the placid and cooling principles to the body. According to location and function kapha is of five kinds: kladaka (supply mucous to the system), avalambaka (transport the blood fluids), vodhaka (tasting agent), tarpaka (irritatingagent) and salesmaka (binding agent).
Vyadhis (diseases) are caused by derangement of one more of three humours and also blood. According to samhitas, vyadhi (diseases) may be four types: agantuja (extraneous), sarira (internal), manasa (mental) and swabhavika (natural).
Concept of Treatment
Direct observation is the most remarkable feature of Ayurveda but some times it is correlated with metaphysics. Samhitas accept this view and write that of all types of evidence, the most dependable ones are those that are directly observed by the eyes. In the Ayurvedic viewpoint successful medical treatment depends on four factors: the physician, substances (drug or diets), nurse and patient. Samhitas described these four factors properly. These four factors are the main mechanisms of ayurveda. It describes four essential qualities of medical factors, physician, grugs or substance, nursing attendant and patient respectively. The qualifications of physician are: clear grasp of the theoretical content of the science, a wide range of experience, practical skill and cleanliness. Qualities of drugs or substances are: abundance, applicability, multiple use and richness in efficacy. Qualifications of the nursing attendant are: knowledge of nursing techniques, practical and cleanliness. And the essential qualifications of patients are: good memory, obedience to the instructions of the doctors, courage and ability to describe the symptoms.
Influence of Ayurveda on East and West
By 400 AD, Ayurvedic works were translated into Chinese; by 700 AD, Chinese scholars were studing medicine in india at Nalandu University. Indian thought, as well as influencing Chinese medicine spirituality and philosophy through Buddhism, greatly influenced Chinese medicine and herbology through Ayurveda. In 800 AD, Ayurvedic works were translated into Arabic. In 16th Century Europe, Paracelsus, who is known as the father of modern medicine, practiced and propagated a system of medicine, which borrowed heavily from Ayurveda. In the following discussion, we would take a global view of Ayurveda.
Below we discuss the spread of the Indian medicinal knowledge to other parts of the world.
Indian has had cultural and trade relations with Mesopotamia, gulf countries and iran even in the III Millennium BC. Seals of Bahrain type have been found in lothal, a harappan town in Gujarat. With the Arab countries india’s scientific and cultural relationship goes back to prehistory. During the medieval times such relations intensified a great deal.
No doubt lexander’s annexation of Gandhara region led to closer ties between Greece and india, but the mutual contacts go beyond to the Persian kings (cyrus, Darius etc) of mid – I millennium BCE. These Persian kings employed both Greek and Indian scholars and physicians. Quoting Fillozat, Sharma (1992) suggests that both plato and Hippocrates were influenced by Indian throught and concepts. Indian wootz steel was equally popular with the Persian kings for both its hardness and rust – free properties (Tripathi 2001).
Contacts with China and Tibet
Indian was in contact with china even during the kushana times. Bahlika was an important centre where traders from china, India and west Asia met and exchanged ideas and goods. During the Gupta period the links between India and China were firmly established. Chinese scholars like Fahiyan, Ywan Chwang, and ltsing were great cultural ambassadors between the two countries. The University of Nalanda, established during the reign of Kumaragupta, attracted a large number of scholars and students from China. Several Ayurvedic texts were translated into Chinese (Sharma 1992).
The bower manuscript (mss), which is named after its discoverer, Lieutenant H. Bower, was found in 1980, in kuchar, in Eastern, on the great caravan route of china. It was then sent to colonel J. Waterhouse, who was then the president of Asiatic Society of Bengal where the famous indologist Hoernle edited it Detailed studies of the mss is written in Indian gupta script. The use of birch – bark for writing shows that they must have come from Kashmir or udyana. Hoernle thinks that they passed themss into the hands of the writer of part IV, who would seem to have been a native of eastern Turkestan, or perhaps of china. but the ultimate owner of the whole series of manuscripts, Yasomitra, must have held a prominent position in that manuscript was contained in the relic chamber of the memorial stupa at the ming – oi of Qum Tura, built in his honur. The large medical treatise called Navanitaka forms the second part of the Bower mss dated to about the second half of the fourth century AD. The Chinese medicine system has several parallels with the Indian system. The Chinese concept of Ying and Yang is comparable to Indian Prakriti and Purusa. So also the five basic elements of the Chinese and Indian systems are similar. It seems that the pulse reading system in india was derived from the Chinese.
The Tibetan and Indian medicine systems too had close relations. The most popular Tibetan medical text is Rgyud bzi (meaning catus – tantra, four treatises) it was based on Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadesa Tantra. In the 8th Century AD Vairochana, a Tibetan scholar, translated it into Tibetan (Dash 1992). The Tibetan medicine system was greatly influenced by Ayurveda, but it is an integral part of Buddhism. Their material – medica could provide many cures for the obstinate and incurable diseases.